Cystoscopy

DEFINITION

Visual examination of the lower urinary tract and collection of urine sample from the bladder. The examination is performed with a Cystoscope, an optic instrument with a lighted tip.

REASONS FOR PROCEDURE

  • Blood in the urine (haematuria.)
  • Inability to control urination (incontinence).
  • Urinary tract infection.
  • Congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract.
  • Tumors of the bladder.
  • Bladder or kidney stones.
  • Tightening of the urethra or the ureters.

RISK INCREASES WITH

  • Obesity.
  • Smoking.
  • Recent or chronic illness.
  • Use of drugs such as: antihypertensives, muscle relaxants, tranquilizes, sleep inducers, insulin, sedatives, beta-adrenergic or cortisone.
  • Use of mind-altering drugs, including: narcotics, psychedelics, hallucinogens, marijuana, sedatives, hypnotic or cocaine.

DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE

  • The patient urinates before surgery so that urine remaining in the bladder can be measured.
  • The Cystoscope is lubricated and inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A urine sample is collected.
  • Fluid is pumped through the Cystoscope to inflate the bladder, which allows visual examination of the entire bladder wall.
  • Bladder or kidney stones are removed, if necessary. Tissue samples are gathered and lesions are treated, if necessary.
  • Catheters are passed through the Cystoscope and guided to the openings into the ureters. A harmless dye is injected through the catheters into the ureters to perform the x-ray studies.
  • The Cystoscope is removed.

EXPECTED OUTCOME

Examination completed and urine sample collected successfully in virtually all cases. Allow about 4 days for recovery from surgery.

POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS

  • Excessive bleeding.
  • Damage to the urethra.
  • Perforation of bladder.
  • Urinary tract infection.
  • Injury to the penis.

POSTPROCEDURE CARE
GENERAL MEASURES
Take warm baths for 10 to 15 minutes several times a day to relieve discomfort.

ACTIVITY

  • Avoid vigorous exercise for 2 weeks after surgery.
  • Resume sexual relations when follow-up medical examination determines that healing is complete.
  • Resume driving 2 days after the procedure.

DIET
No special diet.